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WEIGHT TRAINING -- BODY BUILDING


Key Words:
Food Supplements, Vitamins, Minerals, Amino Acids, Glyconutrients

On this page:
What is a Food Supplement, Types of Food Supplements

See Also:

What are Dietary Supplements?


What are Herbal Supplements?

 

Bodybuilding is the process of maximizing muscle hypertrophy through the combination of weight training, sufficient caloric intake, and rest. Someone who engages in this activity is referred to as a bodybuilder. As a sport, called competitive bodybuilding, bodybuilders display their physiques to a panel of judges, who assign points based on their aesthetic appearance. The muscles are revealed through a combination of fat loss, oils, and tanning (or tanning lotions) which combined with lighting make the definition of the muscle group more distinct. Famous bodybuilders include Arnold Schwarzenegger, Dorian Yates, Lou Ferrigno, Franco Columbu, Ronnie Coleman, and Jay Cutler. History

Early years

Bodybuilding orignated in India in the eleventh century when men would lift a stone version of the dumbell to see which man had the most stamina. The "Early Years" of Western Bodybuilding are considered to be the period between 1880 and 1930.

Bodybuilding (the art of displaying the muscles) did not really exist prior to the late 19th century, when it was promoted by a man from Prussia named Eugen Sandow,[1] who is now generally referred to as "The Father of Modern Bodybuilding". He is credited as being a pioneer of the sport because he allowed an audience to enjoy viewing his physique in "muscle display performances". Although audiences were thrilled to see a well-developed physique, those men simply displayed their bodies as part of strength demonstrations or wrestling matches. Sandow had a stage show built around these displays through his manager, Florenz Ziegfeld. He became so successful at it, he later created several businesses around his fame and was among the first to market products branded with his name alone. As he became more popular, he was credited with inventing and selling the first exercise equipment for the masses (machined dumbbells, spring pulleys and tension bands).

Sandow was a strong advocate of "the Grecian Ideal" (this was a standard where a mathematical "ideal" was set up and the "perfect physique" was close to the proportions of ancient Greek and Roman statues from classical times). This is how Sandow built his own physique and in the early years, men were judged by how closely they matched these "ideal" proportions. Sandow organised the first bodybuilding contest on 14 September 1901 called the "Great Competition" and held in the Royal Albert Hall, London, UK. Judged by himself, Sir Charles Lawes, and Sir Arthur Conan Doyle, the contest was a huge success and was sold out and hundreds of physical culture enthusiasts were turned away. The trophy presented to the winner was a bronze statue of Sandow himself sculpted by Frederick Pomeroy. The winner was William L. Murray of Nottingham, England. The most prestigious bodybuilding contest today is the Mr. Olympia, and since 1977, the winner has been presented with the same bronze statue of Sandow that he himself presented to the winner at the first contest.[2]

On 16 January 1904, the first large-scale bodybuilding competition in America took place at Madison Square Garden in New York City. The winner was Al Treloar and he was declared "The Most Perfectly Developed Man in the World". Treloar won a $1,000 cash prize, a substantial sum at that time. Two weeks later, Thomas Edison made a film of Al Treloar's posing routine. Edison also made two films of Sandow a few years before, making him the man who made the first three motion pictures featuring a bodybuilder. In the early 20th century, Bernarr Macfadden and Charles Atlas, continued to promote bodybuilding across the world. Alois P. Swoboda was an early pioneer in America and the man whom Charles Atlas credited with his success in his statement: "Everything that I know I learned from A. P. (Alois) Swoboda."

Other important bodybuilders in the early history of bodybuilding prior to 1930 include: Earle Liederman (writer of some of the earliest bodybuilding instruction books), Seigmund Breitbart (famous Jewish bodybuilder), Georg Hackenschmidt, George F. Jowett, Maxick (a pioneer in the art of posing), Monte Saldo, Launceston Elliot, Sig Klein, Sgt. Alfred Moss, Joe Nordquist, Lionel Strongfort (Strongfortism), Gustav Fristensky (the Czech champion), and Alan C. Mead, who became an impressive muscle champion despite the fact that he lost a leg in World War I.

The "Golden Age"

The period of around 1940 to 1970 is often referred to as the "Golden Age" of bodybuilding because of changes in the aesthetic for more mass, as well as muscular symmetry and definition, which characterised the "early years". This was due in large part to the advent of World War II, which inspired many young men to be bigger, stronger and more aggressive in their attitudes. This was accomplished by improved training techniques, better nutrition and more effective equipment. Several important publications came into being, as well, and new contests emerged as the popularity of the sport grew.

This period of bodybuilding was typified at Muscle Beach in Venice, California. Famous names in bodybuilding from this period included Steve Reeves (notable in his day for portraying Hercules and other sword-and-sandal heroes), Clancy Ross, Reg Park, John Grimek, Dan Lurie, Larry Scott, Bill Pearl, and Irvin "Zabo" Koszewski.

The rise in popularity of the Amateur Athletic Union (AAU) added a bodybuilding competition to their existing weightlifting contest in 1939 - and the following year this competition was named AAU Mr. America. Around the mid-1940s most bodybuilders became disgruntled with the AAU since they only allowed amateur competitors and they placed more focus on the Olympic sport of weightlifting. This caused brothers Ben and Joe Weider to form the International Federation of BodyBuilders (IFBB) - which organized their competition IFBB Mr. America, which was open to professional athletes.

In 1950, another organization, the National Amateur Bodybuilders Association (NABBA) started their NABBA Mr. Universe contest in the UK. Another major contest, Mr. Olympia was first held in 1965 - and this is currently the most prestigious title in bodybuilding.

Initially contests were only for men, but the NABBA added Miss Universe in 1965 and Ms. Olympia was started in 1980. (For more, see female bodybuilding.)

1970s onwards

In the 1970s, bodybuilding had major publicity thanks to Arnold Schwarzenegger and the 1977 film Pumping Iron. By this time the IFBB dominated the sport and the AAU took a back seat.

The National Physique Committee (NPC) was formed in 1981 by Jim Manion, who had just stepped down as chairman of the AAU Physique Committee. The NPC has gone on to become the most successful bodybuilding organization in the U.S., and is the amateur division of the IFBB. The late 1980s and early 1990s saw the decline of AAU sponsored bodybuilding contests. In 1999, the AAU voted to discontinue its bodybuilding events.

This period also saw the rise of anabolic steroids used both in bodybuilding and many other sports. To combat this, and to be allowed to be an IOC member, the IFBB introduced doping tests for both steroids and other banned substances. Although doping tests occurred, the majority of professional bodybuilders still used anabolic steroids for competition. During the 1970s the use of anabolic steroids was openly discussed partly due to the fact they were legal.[3] However the U.S. Congress in the Anabolic Steroid Control Act of 1990 placed anabolic steroids into Schedule III of the Controlled substance act (CSA).

In 1990, wrestling promoter Vince McMahon announced he was forming a new bodybuilding organization, the World Bodybuilding Federation (WBF). McMahon wanted to bring WWF-style showmanship and bigger prize money to the sport of bodybuilding. McMahon signed 13 competitors to lucrative long-term contracts, something virtually unheard of in bodybuilding up until then. Most of the WBF competitors immediately abandoned the IFBB. In response to the WBF's formation, IFBB president Ben Weider blacklisted all the bodybuilders who had signed with the WBF. The IFBB also quietly stopped testing their athletes for anabolic steroid use since it was difficult to compete thus with a new organization which did not test for steroids. In 1992, Vince McMahon instituted drug testing for WBF athletes because he and the WWF were under investigation by the federal government for alleged involvement in anabolic steroid trafficking. The result was that the competitors in the 1992 WBF contest looked sub-par, according to some contemporary accounts. McMahon formally dissolved the WBF in July, 1992. Reasons for this probably included lack of income from the pay-per-view broadcasts of the WBF contests, slow sales of the WBF's magazine Bodybuilding Lifestyles (which later became WBF Magazine), and the expense of paying multiple 6-figure contracts as well as producing two TV shows and a monthly magazine. However, the formation of the WBF had two positive effects for the IFBB athletes: (1) it caused IFBB founder Joe Weider to sign many of his top stars to contracts, and (2) it caused the IFBB to raise prize money in its sanctioned contests. Joe Weider eventually offered to accept the WBF bodybuilders back into the IFBB for a fine of 10% of their former yearly WBF salary.

In the early 2000s, the IFBB was attempting to make bodybuilding an Olympic sport. It obtained full IOC membership in 2000 and was attempting to get approved as a demonstration event at the Olympics which would hopefully lead to it being added as a full contest. This did not happen. Olympic recognition for bodybuilding remains controversial since some argue that bodybuilding is not a sport because the actual contest does not involve athletic effort. Also, some still have the misperception that bodybuilding necessarily involves the use of anabolic steroids, which are prohibited in Olympic competitions. Proponents argue that the posing routine requires skill and preparation, and bodybuilding should therefore be considered a sport.

In 2003, Joe Weider sold Weider Publications to AMI, which owns The National Enquirer. Ben Weider is still the president of the IFBB. In 2004, contest promoter Wayne DeMilia broke ranks with the IFBB and AMI took over the promotion of the Mr. Olympia contest.

Areas of Bodybuilding

Professional bodybuilding

In the modern bodybuilding industry "Professional" generally means a bodybuilder who has won qualifying competitions as an amateur and has earned a 'pro card' from the IFBB. Professionals earn the right to compete in sanctioned competitions including the Arnold Classic and the Night of Champions. Placings at such competitions in turn earn them the right to compete at the Mr. Olympia; the title is considered to be the highest accolade in the professional bodybuilding field.

Natural bodybuilding

In natural contests bodybuilders are routinely tested for illegal substances and are banned for any violations from future contests. Testing can be done on urine samples, but in many cases a less expensive polygraph (lie detector) test is performed instead. What qualifies as an "illegal" substance, in the sense that it is prohibited by regulatory bodies, varies between natural federations, and does not necessarily include only substances that are illegal under the laws of the relevant jurisdiction. Anabolic steroids, Prohormone and Diuretics are generally banned in natural organizations. Natural bodybuilding organizations include NANBF (North American Natural Bodybuilding Federation), and the NPA (Natural physique association). Natural bodybuilders assert that their method is more focused on competition and a healthy lifestyle than other forms of bodybuilding.

Teenage bodybuilding

Bodybuilding also has many competition categories for young entrants. Many current professional bodybuilders started weight training during their teenage years. Bodybuilders such as Arnold Schwarzenegger, Lee Priest and Jay Cutler all started competing when they were teenagers. Today many teenagers compete in bodybuilding competitions.

Female bodybuilding

In the 1970s, women began to take part in bodybuilding competitions, and was extremely popular for a time. More than ever women are training with weights for exercise purposes with desire for a more attractive body and to prevent bone loss.[4] Many women however still fear that weight training will make them "bulky" and believe weight training is only for men. However strength training has many benefits for women including increased bone mass and prevention of bone loss as well as increased muscle strength and balance.[5][6] In recent years, the related areas of fitness and figure competition have gained in popularity, providing an alternative for women who choose not to develop the level of muscularity necessary for bodybuilding. The first Ms. Olympia contest in 1980, won by Rachel McLish, would resemble closely what is thought of today as a fitness and figure competition.

In competitive bodybuilding, bodybuilders aspire to develop and maintain an aesthetically pleasing (by bodybuilding standards) body and balanced physique. The competitors show off their bodies by performing a number of poses - bodybuilders spend time practicing their posing as this has a large effect on how they are judged.

A bodybuilder's size and shape are far more important than how much he or she can lift. The sport should therefore not be confused with strongman competition or powerlifting, where the main point is on actual physical strength, or with Olympic weightlifting, where the main point is equally split between strength and technique. Though superficially similar to the casual observer, the fields entail a different regimen of training, diet, and basic motivation.

Preparation for a Contest

The general strategy adopted by most present-day competitive bodybuilders is to make muscle gains for most of the year (known as the "off-season") and approximately 3-4 months from competition attempt to lose body fat (referred to as "cutting"). In doing this some muscle will be lost but the aim is to keep this to a minimum. There are many approaches used but most involve reducing calorie intake and increasing cardio, while monitoring body fat percentage.

In the week leading up to a contest, bodybuilders will begin increasing their water intake so as to deregulate the systems in the body associated with water flushing. They will also increase their sodium intake. At the same time they will decrease their carbohydrate consumption in an attempt to "carb deplete". The goal during this week is to deplete the muscles of glycogen. Two days before the show, sodium intake is reduced by half, and then eliminated completely. The day before the show, water is removed from the diet, and diuretics may be introduced. At the same time carbohydrates are re-introduced into the diet to expand the muscles. This is typically known as "carb-loading." The end result is an ultra-lean bodybuilder with full hard muscles and a dry, vascular appearance.

Prior to performing on stage, bodybuilders will apply various products to their skin to improve their muscle definition - these include fake tan commonly called "pro tan" (to make the skin darker) and various oils (to make the skin shiny). They will also use weights to "pump up" by forcing blood to their muscles to improve size and vascularity. Some may also gorge on sugar-rich candies to enhance the visibility of their veins, often considered a sign of high muscle-definition.

Bodybuilders use three main strategies to maximize muscle hypertrophy:

  • Strength training through weights or elastic/hydraulic resistance
  • Specialised nutrition, incorporating extra protein and supplements where necessary
  • Adequate rest, including sleep and recuperation between workouts
  • Water is very important during and after a workout to prevent dehydration.

Weight training

Weight training causes micro-tears to the muscles being trained; this is generally known as microtrauma. These micro-tears in the muscle contribute to the soreness felt after exercise, called delayed onset muscle soreness (DOMS). It is the repair to these micro-trauma that result in muscle growth. Normally, this soreness becomes most apparent a day or two after a workout. However, as muscles become adapted to the exercises, soreness tends to decrease.[7]

Nutrition

The high levels of muscle growth and repair achieved by bodybuilders require a specialized diet. Generally speaking, bodybuilders require more calories than the average person of the same weight to support the protein and energy requirements needed to support their training and increase muscle mass. A sub-maintenance level of food energy is combined with cardiovascular exercise to lose body fat in preparation for a contest. The ratios of food energy from carbohydrates, proteins, and fats vary depending on the goals of the bodybuilder.[8]

Carbohydrates play an important role for bodybuilders. Carbohydrates give the body energy to deal with the rigors of training and recovery. Bodybuilders seek out low-glycemic polysaccharides and other slowly-digesting carbohydrates, which release energy in a more stable fashion than high-glycemic sugars and starches. This is important as high-glycemic carbohydrates cause a sharp insulin response, which places the body in a state where it is likely to store additional food energy as fat rather than muscle, and which can waste energy that should be directed towards muscle growth. However, bodybuilders frequently do ingest some quickly-digesting sugars (often in form of pure dextrose or maltodextrin) after a workout. This may help to replenish glycogen stores within the muscle, and to stimulate muscle protein synthesis.[9]

Protein is probably one of the most important parts of the diet for the bodybuilder to consider. Functional proteins such as motor proteins which include myosin, kinesin, and dynein generate the forces exerted by contracting muscles. Current advice says that bodybuilders should consume 25-30% of protein per total calorie intake to further their goal of maintaining and improving their body composition.[10] This is a widely debated topic, with many arguing that 1 gram of protein per pound of body weight is ideal, some suggesting that less is sufficient, while others recommending 1.5, 2, or more.[11][12][13][14] It is believed that protein needs to be consumed frequently throughout the day, especially during/after a workout, and before sleep.[15] There is also some debate concerning the best type of protein to take. Chicken, beef, pork, fish, eggs and dairy foods are high in protein, as are some nuts, seeds, beans and lentils. Casein or whey are often used to supplement the diet with additional protein. Whey protein is the type of protein contained in many popular brands of protein supplements, and is preferred by many bodybuilders because of its high Biological Value (BV) and quick absorption rates. Bodybuilders usually require higher quality protein with a high BV rather than relying on protein such as soy, which is often avoided due to its claimed estrogenic properties.[16] Still, some nutrition experts believe that soy, flax seeds and many other plants that contain the weak estrogen-like compounds or phytoestrogens can be used beneficially as phytoestrogens compete with this hormone for receptor sites in the male body and can block its actions. This can also include some inhibition of pituitary functions while stimulating the P450 system (the system that eliminates chemicals, hormones, drugs and metabolic waste product from the body) in the liver to more actively process and excrete excess estrogen.[17][18]

Bodybuilders usually split their food intake for the day into 5 to 7 meals of roughly equal nutritional content and attempt to eat at regular intervals (normally between 2 and 3 hours). This method purports to serve two purposes: to limit overindulging as well as increasing basal metabolic rate when compared to the traditional 3 meals a day. However, this has been debunked as the most reliable reasearch using whole-body calorimetry and doubly-labeled water finds no metabolic advantage to eating more frequently.[19][20]

Dietary supplements
 

The important role of nutrition in building muscle and losing fat means bodybuilders may consume a wide variety of dietary supplements.[21] Various products are used in an attempt to augment muscle size, increase the rate of fat loss, improve joint health and prevent potential nutrient deficiencies. Scientific consensus supports the effectiveness of only a small number of commercially available supplements when used by healthy, physically active adults[citation needed]. Creatine is probably the most widely used performance enhancing legal supplement. Creatine works by turning into creatine phosphate, which provides an extra phosphorus molecule in the regeneration of ATP. This will provide the body with more energy that lasts longer during short, intense bits of work like weight training.

Performance enhancing substances

Some bodybuilders use drugs to gain an advantage in hypertrophy, especially in professional competitions. Although these substances are illegal without prescription in many countries, in professional bodybuilding anabolic steroids and precursor substances such as prohormones are used very frequently. Anabolic steroids cause muscle hypertrophy of both types (I and II) of muscle fibers caused likely by an increased synthesis of muscle proteins. Some negative side-effects accompany steroid abuse, such as hepatotoxicity, gynecomastia, acne, male pattern baldness and a decline in the body's own testosterone production, which can cause testicular atrophy.[22][23][24]

Growth Hormone (GH) and insulin are also used. GH is relatively expensive compared to steroids, while insulin is very readily available yet fatal if misused. See Growth hormone treatment for bodybuilding.

Rest

Although muscle stimulation occurs in the gym lifting weights, muscle growth occurs afterward during rest. Without adequate rest and sleep, muscles do not have an opportunity to recover and build. About eight hours of sleep a night is desirable for the bodybuilder to be refreshed, although this varies from person to person. Additionally, many athletes find a daytime nap further increases their body's ability to build muscle. Some bodybuilders take several naps per day, during peak anabolic phases.

Overtraining

 

Overtraining refers to when a bodybuilder has trained to the point where his workload exceeds his recovery capacity. There are many reasons that overtraining occurs, including lack of adequate nutrition, lack of recovery time between workouts, insufficient sleep, and training at a high intensity for too long (a lack of splitting apart workouts). Training at a high intensity too frequently also stimulates the central nervous system (CNS) and can result in a hyper-adrenergic state that interferes with sleep patterns.[25] To avoid overtraining, intense frequent training must be met with at least an equal amount of purposeful recovery. Timely provision of carbohydrates, proteins, and various micronutrients such as vitamins, minerals, phytochemicals, even nutritional supplements are acutely critical.

It has been argued that overtraining can be beneficial. One article published by Muscle & Fitness magazine stated that you can "Overtrain for Big Gains". It suggested that if one is planning a restful holiday and they do not wish to inhibit their bodybuilding lifestyle too much, they should overtrain before taking the holiday, so the body can rest easily and recuperate and grow. Overtraining can be used advantageously, as when a bodybuilder is purposely overtrained for a brief period of time to super compensate during a regeneration phase. These are known as "shock micro-cycles" and were a key training technique used by Soviet athletes.[26] However, the vast majority of overtraining that occurs in average bodybuilders is generally unplanned and completely unnecessary.[27]

References

  1. Homepage Sandow: Historic Photographs of Early Bodybuilders - The Sandow Museum: History of Bodybuilding - A Tribute to Eugen Sandow.
  2. The Mr. Olympia Bodybuilding Contest Trophy and Medal - I.F.B.B.: THE STORY OF THE MR. OLYMPIA TROPHY BY DAVID L. CHAPMAN. BIOGRAPHER OF EUGEN SANDOW. Article
  3. Theunissen, Steve. Arnold & Steroids: Truth Revealed.
  4. Trends in Strength Training. Center for disease control (July 21, 2006).
  5. 10 exercise myths. Center for science in the public interest (Jan 2000).
  6. "Sculpted trend spurs women to pump iron", MSNBC, MSNBC, July 20, 2006, pp. 1.
  7. MacDougall JD, Elder GC, Sale DG, Moroz JR, Sutton JR (1980). "Effects of strength training and immobilization on human muscle fibres". European journal of applied physiology and occupational physiology 43 (1): 25-34. PMID 7371625. 
  8. Manore, MM; Thompson J, Russo M (Mar 1993). "Diet and exercise strategies of a world-class bodybuilder.". Int J Sport Nutr. 3 (1): 76-86.. Dept. of Family Resources & Human Development, Arizona State University. PMID 8499940. 
  9. Michael W. King, Michael. Substrates for Gluconeogenesis. IU School of Medicine.
  10. Lambert CP, Frank LL, Evans WJ. Macronutrient considerations for the sport of bodybuilding. Sports Med. 2004;34(5):317-27. PMID 15107010
  11. Protein: a guide to maximum muscle: confused? Let us separate the gristle from the meat, Samantha Heller, Men's Fitness, April 2004 http://www.findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_m1608/is_4_20/ai_n6002944
  12. Bodybuilders & Protein Part 2, Tom Venuto http://www.bodybuildingforyou.com/articles-submit/tom-venuto/bodybuildiers-and-protein-2.htm
  13. Protein Handbook for Beginners, Jeff Bahar, Bodybuilding.com http://www.bodybuilding.com/fun/protein8.htm
  14. Protein Cycling by Chris Aceto. Retrieved on 2007-01-19.
  15. Your nutrition problems solved; This month: pre- and postworkout nutrition, calculating protein intake and adding simple carbs FLEX Magazine, January 2005
  16. Author L. Rea's Core Performance: Truth For Excellence In Physique & Performance -- Soy Proten Sucks! Article
  17. http://www.maxmuscle.com/index.cfm?fa=article&doc_id=116&subcat=science Estrogens, Testosterone & Phytoestrogens By Mike Falcon
  18. ^ Eugene Shippen; William Fryer (1998). The testosterone syndrome: the critical factor for energy, health, and sexuality: reversing the male menopause. New York: M. Evans. ISBN 0-87131-829-6. 
  19. Bellisle F, McDevitt R, Prentice AM (1997). "Meal frequency and energy balance". Br. J. Nutr. 77 Suppl 1: S57–70. PMID 9155494. 
  20. Taylor MA, Garrow JS (2001). "Compared with nibbling, neither gorging nor a morning fast affect short-term energy balance in obese patients in a chamber calorimeter". Int. J. Obes. Relat. Metab. Disord. 25 (4): 519–28. PMID 11319656. 
  21. Philen RM, Ortiz DI, Auerbach SB, Falk H (1992). "Survey of advertising for nutritional supplements in health and bodybuilding magazines". JAMA 268 (8): 1008-11. PMID 1501305. 
  22. Schroeder E, Vallejo A, Zheng L, et al (2005). "Six-week improvements in muscle mass and strength during androgen therapy in older men". J Gerontol A Biol Sci Med Sci 60 (12): 1586-92. PMID 16424293. 
  23. Grunfeld C, Kotler D, Dobs A, Glesby M, Bhasin S (2006). "Oxandrolone in the treatment of HIV-associated weight loss in men: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study". J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr 41 (3): 304-14. PMID 16540931. 
  24. Giorgi A, Weatherby R, Murphy P (1999). "Muscular strength, body composition and health responses to the use of testosterone enanthate: a double blind study". Journal of science and medicine in sport / Sports Medicine Australia 2 (4): 341-55. PMID 10710012. 
  25. Testosterone Nation - The Warrior Nerd: Overtraining or Under-eating? Part 1 by Lonnie Lowery, Ph.D. Article
  26. Smith DJ (2003). "A framework for understanding the training process leading to elite performance". Sports medicine (Auckland, N.Z.) 33 (15): 1103-26. PMID 14719980. 
  27. Testosterone Nation - The "Imperfect" Training Program. by Keats Snideman. Article

External links

Related Sites:

  • ABC Bodybuilding - Training, diet and journal forums including monthly e-zine and moderated discussions.
  • Adam's Natural Bodybuilding - Articles and inspiration for the natural bodybuilding lifestyle. Includes FAQ, glossary and editorial.
  • Better Body Online - Includes multimedia, one man's training diary, photo gallery and forums. Some content only for paid members.
  • Body Builders Network - Offers routines, training tips, links and message boards.
  • Bodybuilding Basics - Provides information on all the neccessary parts of bodybuilding such as origins, training and nutrition.
  • Bodybuilding Tips - Features supplements, nutrition, diet, routines, workouts, online journals and tips.
  • Bodybuilding.com - Comprehensive site with interaction, information, personals and cyberstore.
  • BodyChangers - Features stories of ordinary people who have changed their lives through physique transformation program.
  • British Bodybuilding - Includes training, nutrition, gym listings and information.
  • Finally Fit - Professional advice from coach Eric Shrieves, including training and nutrition.
  • Get Big - Offers articles, content schedules and results, interviews, links, pictures and a message board.
  • Metal Militia - The strongest benchers in the World. Articles, calendars, photographs, links, and a message board.
  • Natural Muscle Bodybuilding - Bodyduilding the natural way: information on vitamins, magazines, and training videos.
  • Suite 101: Bodybuilding - Articles, links and community forum with discussions.
  • Supreme Body Building - Information covering all areas of body building, anabolic steroids, training, nutrition, supplements and a discussion board.
  • UK Muscle - Community with live seminars, forum, gallery, tips, articles and chat.
  • WeightsNet - Featuring daily issues of weights, an Internet training resource since 1990. Also includes links, news and a TV schedule for training shows.
  • AAA Weight - Offering weight lifting programs, articles, resources, supplements and books.
  • The Abdominal Training FAQ - Provides an FAQ that serves as an introduction to the basic principles of training and diet for developing the abdominal muscles.
  • Absco Fitness - Large, frequently-updated database of articles on fitness, supplements, diet, weight training and health.
  • Addicted To Gym - Bodybuilding and overall fitness. Articles and tips on exercises, muscles, nutrition and benefits of working out.
  • AllYourStrength.com - Nutritional counselor and fitness consultant Jon Benson provides articles and information on the science of physique transformation, nutrition and fitness, as well as paid consultation services.
  • Asylum Training - Specializes in offering personal training, weight loss, supplements, nutrition, fitness gear/equipment, and fitness related information and articles.
  • The Barnett Training System - Contains detailed information by author Bob Barnett on weight training, sports nutrition, aerobic conditioning and flexibility. Also includes discussion forum.
  • Best Abs - Offers abdominal exercises and workout programs from bodybuilding fitness expert Shawn Phillips.
  • Bionic Health - Provides information on health, training and supplementation. Features articles, training programs and product reviews.
  • Body Builder - Offers workout routines, discussion forum and links.
  • Bodybuilders Handbook - Features training tips, gallery and a question and answers page.
  • Bodybuilding Routines - Bodybuilding routines and diet information. Includes IFBB contest news and links.
  • Bodybuilding Tips - Offers articles on beginner and advanced training routines and techniques, diet and supplements.
  • bodybuilding tracker - Site offers the chance to track your bodybuilding progress with before and after pictures and statistics.
  • Bodybuilding UK - UK based site featuring advice on bodybuilding training and nutrition, together with supplement reviews and news.
  • Bodybuilding Universe - Resource site offering articles, picture galleries, training routines and the latest news in the sport of bodybuilding.
  • Building Muscle101 - Helping beginners and advanced weight lifters build muscle. Provides weight lifting routines, tips, nutrition advice, recipes and reviews.
  • Changing Shape Fitness - Online weight lifting programs supporting the use of one set to fatigue. Features message boards, fitness tools and articles.
  • Cory's Natural Bodybuilding - Natural bodybuilding sites. Provides information about training, nutrition, steroid side effects and gaining weight.
  • Critical Bench - Home of the critical bench press program. Features articles, meal plans, fitness tools, pictures and message boards.
  • CyberFlexing - Information about bodybuilding training, supplements, and nutrition.
  • Cyberpump - Providing high intensity training techniques, training tips and routines. Annual fee required to view content.
  • Davin's Bodybuilding and Fitness - Natural body building tips and workout routines for muscle gain and fat loss. Features discussion forum, gallery and articles.
  • Dungeon Gym - A site based on hardcore old-time weightlifting with diet, lifting routines, photo gallery and a store.
  • Dynamic Muscle - Sypplying information on weight training, nutrition, bodybuilding, sports medicine and sports training. Includes discussion forum.
  • e-Weight Loss and Fitness Exercises - Resource for weight loss and fitness exercises. Hundreds of exercise descriptions with photographs.
  • ExerTrack - Free Exercise Tracking Software
  • Free Weight Training Workout Routines. - Detailed information on diet, supplements and nutrition for muscle gain. Features workouts from beginner to advanced level.
  • GhostGym - Information on all aspects of bodybuilding and weight training. Also provides a personal training and coaching service to all of its members.
  • Go Heavy Or Go Home - A source for advice, hints and tips for the natural bodybuilder and weight trainer from beginner to hardcore. Features training routines, gym etiquette and slang and diet and general workout advice.
  • Got Muscles - Training information, nutritional advice, supplement reviews and links.
  • Gym Journal - A free online journal for you to track your weight lifting workouts, as well as your nutrition requirements.
  • Hardcore Bodybuilding - Provides training advice, nutrition, competition and helpful motivational ideas.
  • Hardcore Bodybuilding On The Web - Information on workouts, nutrition, supplements and steroids. Features photograph gallery, discussion forums, store and links.
  • Hardgainer Online - Flex columnist Stuart MacRoberts presents information on common sense bodybuilding and strength training and excerpts from his Beyond Brawn book series.
  • Hardgainer's Home Gym - One stop site for powerlifting, bodybuilding, weightlifting and fitness information. Features fitness tools, FAQ and discussion forum.
  • Home Exercise Help - Information provided on weight training, abdominal stability and flexibility. How each element of exercise benefits overall health and wellness.
  • Intense Workout - Information about weightlifting, bodybuilding, exercises, gaining weight and muscle mass naturally, workout routines, diets, weight loss and losing fat.
  • Iron Addicts Training - Training advice site featuring articles, forums and a paid personal training service.
  • The Iron Dungeon - Training information for bodybuilding and weight lifting, nutrition and humor.
  • John D. Moore's Weightlifting Site - Offers articles by Prof. John D. Moore of American Military University. Includes body types and common gym myths.
  • kenchi's Senior Fitness and Bodybuilding - A non-commercial senior fitness and bodybuilding site aimed at the Over 50s. Offers articles, recipes, fitness tools and discussion boards.
  • Lift for Life - Bodybuilding and fitness information for the Competitive Natural Athlete. Includes Competition Calendar.
  • Manoj's Bodybuilding and Fitness Site - Information on exercises, gym, nutrition and Yoga. Features message board, glossary and workout tips.
  • Massivemuscle - Offers bodybuilding links, nutritional and supplement information, training routines, exercises and dietary advice.
  • Mike's Arm Gallery - Bicep and tricep building pictures, programs and routines submitted by visitors to the site.
  • Mucho Muscle - Personal Trainer shares information about muscle building, weight training, workout tips, articles and workout routines.
  • Muscle Addict - Supplying weight training and dieting information.
  • Natural Weightlifting.com - Paid subscription weight lifting program. Offers workout sheets, online trainer, nutrition, and cardio guide.
  • Netfit - Extensive site offering exercise descriptions, training programs and diet information.
  • Onelastrep.com - Offers an abundance of bodybuilding, fitness and weight loss articles.
  • OTB Strength Training - Strength training site for information on bodybuilding and olympic lifting. Provides articles, training guides, gallery, chatroom and discussion forum.
  • Peak Performance Fitness Systems - 12 week fitness program. Features training routines and tips plus supplement information and healthy recipes.
  • Physical Culture Page - Dedicated to the oldtime strongmen and their various styles of natural bodybuilding.
  • The Pumping Station - Bodybuilding routines, nutrition, supplements and steroid information. Offers articles, workout tips and bodybuilding links.
  • Smart Training UK - Features weight training programs, bodybuilding workouts, HIT routines and fitness links.
  • Truly Huge - Bodybuilding, health and fitness. Free workout and diet tips.
  • Weight Lifting Co Webz - Provides programs, tips, supplements and diets.
  • Weight Lifting Routines - Using scientific studies and real-world results, shows how to design weight lifting routines to help more effectively gain muscle and lose fat.
  • The WeighTrainer - Addressing the training and nutrition needs of drug-free bodybuilding, powerlifting, weightlifting and general strength training.
  • Weights On The Web - Free personal training, photo gallery and training and nutrition articles, by Tim Wescott N.P.C. National Level Masters Bodybuilder.
  • Workout.com - An online library of graphical workout programs designed by professional trainers and coaches. Features articles, exercise demonstrations and forums.
  • Zen in the Art of Self-Resistance - A weightless bodybuilding workout utilizing self-resistance, isotonics, isometrics, and stretching.

 

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