contacts. Eighty percent of available jobs are
never advertised, and over half of all employees get their jobs
through networking, according to BH Careers International. Therefore,
the people you know—friends, family, neighbors, acquaintances,
teachers, and former coworkers—are some of the most effective
resources for your job search. The network of people that you
know and the people that they know can lead to information about
specific job openings that are not publicly posted. To develop
new contacts, join student, community, or professional organizations.
career planning and placement offices. High school
and college placement offices help their students and alumni find
jobs. They allow recruiters to use their facilities for interviews
or career fairs. Placement offices usually have a list of part-time,
temporary, and summer jobs offered on campus. They also may have
lists of jobs for regional, nonprofit, and government organizations.
In addition to linking you to potential employers, career planning
offices usually provide career counseling, career testing, and
job search advice. Some have career resource libraries; host workshops
on job search strategy, résumé writing, letter writing, and effective
interviewing; critique drafts of résumés; conduct mock interviews;
and sponsor job fairs.
Through your library and Internet research, develop a list of
potential employers in your desired career field. Employer Web
sites often contain lists of job openings. Web sites and business
directories can provide you with information on how to apply for
a position or whom to contact. Even if no open positions are posted,
do not hesitate to contact the employer and the relevant department.
Set up an interview with someone working in the same area in which
you wish to work. Ask them how they got started, what they like
and dislike about the work, what type of qualifications are necessary
for the job, and what type of personality succeeds in that position.
Even if they don’t have a position available, they may be able
to put you in contact with other people who might hire you, and
they can keep you in mind if a position opens up. Make sure to
send them your résumé and a cover letter. If you are able to obtain
an interview, be sure to send a thank-you note. Directly contacting
employers is one of the most successful means of job hunting.
ads. The "Help Wanted" ads in newspapers list
numerous jobs. You should realize, however, that many other job
openings are not listed, and that the classified ads sometimes
do not give all of the important information. They may offer little
or no description of the job, working conditions, or pay. Some
ads do not identify the employer. They may simply give a post
office box to which you can mail your résumé, making follow-up
inquiries very difficult. Some ads offer out-of-town jobs; others
advertise employment agencies rather than actual employment opportunities.
classified ads, keep the following in mind:
- Do not
rely solely on the classifieds to find a job; follow other leads
ads promptly, because openings may be filled quickly, even before
the ad stops appearing in the paper.
- Read the
ads every day, particularly the Sunday edition, which usually
includes the most listings.
of "no experience necessary" ads. These ads often signal low
wages, poor working conditions, or commission work.
- Keep a
record of all ads to which you have responded, including the
specific skills, educational background, and personal qualifications
required for the position.
networks and resources. The Internet is an invaluable
resource. Use it to find advice on conducting your job search
more effectively; to search for a job; to research prospective
employers; and to communicate with people who can help you with
your job search. No single Web site will contain all the information
available on employment or career opportunities, so in addition
to the Web sites listed below, use a search engine to find what
you need. The different types of sites that may be useful include
general career advice sites, job search sites, company Web sites,
trade and professional association Web sites, and forums. Internet
forums, also called message boards, are online discussion groups
where anyone may post and read messages. Use forums specific to
your profession or to career-related topics to post questions
or messages and to read about other peoples’ job searches or career
In job databases,
remember that job listings may be posted by field or discipline,
so begin your search using keywords. Some Web sites provide national
or local classified listings and allow job seekers to post their
résumés online. When searching employment databases on the Internet,
it usually is possible to send your résumé to an employer by e-mail
or to post it online.
is a database consisting of three separate career resource tools.
It can be accessed on the Internet at: http://www.careeronestop.org/, or by telephone at:
(877) 348-0502. Alternatively, each resource tool can be accessed
directly at its own Internet address.
Job Bank allows you to search through a database of more
than 1 million jobs nationwide, create and post your résumé online,
and set up an automated job search. The database contains a wide
range of mostly full-time private sector jobs that are available
all over the country. Job seekers can access America’s Job Bank
Career InfoNet provides information on educational, licensing,
and certification requirements for different occupations by State.
It also provides information on wages, cost of living, and employment
trends, and helps job seekers identify their skills and write
résumés and cover letters. Job seekers can access America’s Career
InfoNet at: http://www.acinet.org/.
Service Locator provides listings of local employment service
offices which help job seekers find jobs and help employers find
qualified workers at no cost to either. At the State employment
service office, an interviewer will determine if you are "job
ready" or if you need help from counseling and testing services
to assess your occupational aptitudes and interests and to help
you choose and prepare for a career. After you are "job ready,"
you may examine available job listings and select openings that
interest you. A staff member can then describe the job openings
in detail and arrange for interviews with prospective employers.
Job seekers can access America’s Service Locator at: http://www.servicelocator.org/. A list of offices
is also in the State government telephone listings under "Job
Service" or "Employment."
Internet Resources to Plan your Future, a U.S. Department
of Labor publication, offers advice on organizing your Internet
job search. It is primarily intended to provide instruction for
job seekers on how to use the Internet to their best advantage,
but recruiters and other career service industry professionals
will find information here to help them also. How to Use
the Internet in your Job Search; The Job Search Process;
and the Career-Related Pages, other U.S. Department
of Labor Internet publications, each discusses specific steps
that job seekers can follow to identify employment opportunities.
Included are daily tips and hints, plus a large database of links
and job search engines. Check with your State employment service
office, or order a copy of these and other publications from the
U.S. Government Printing Office’s Superintendent of Documents.
Telephone: (202) 512-1800. Internet: http://bookstore.gpo.gov/ or http://www.doleta.gov/.
employment service offices. The State employment
service, sometimes called the Job Service, operates in coordination
with the U.S. Department of Labor’s Employment and Training Administration.
Local offices, found nationwide, help job seekers to find jobs
and help employers to find qualified workers at no cost to either.
To find the office nearest you, look in the State government telephone
listings under "Job Service" or "Employment."
matching and referral. At the State employment service
office, an interviewer will determine if you are "job ready" or
if you need help from counseling and testing services to assess
your occupational aptitudes and interests and to help you choose
and prepare for a career. After you are "job ready," you may examine
available job listings and select openings that interest you.
A staff member can then describe the job openings in detail and
arrange for interviews with prospective employers.
for special groups. By law, veterans are entitled to priority
for job placement at State employment service centers. If you
are a veteran, a veterans’ employment representative can inform
you of available assistance and help you to deal with problems.
service offices refer people to opportunities available under
the Workforce Investment Act (WIA) of 1998. WIA reforms Federal
employment, adult education, and vocational rehabilitation programs
to create an integrated, "one-stop" system of workforce investment
and education activities for adults and youths. Services are provided
to employers and job seekers, including adults, dislocated workers,
and youths. WIA's primary purpose is to increase the employment,
retention, skills, and earnings of participants. These programs
help to prepare people to participate in the State's workforce,
increase their employment and earnings potential, improve their
educational and occupational skills, and reduce their dependency
on welfare, which will improve the quality of the workforce and
enhance the productivity and competitiveness of the Nation's economy.
Government. Information on obtaining a position
with the Federal Government is available from the U.S. Office
of Personnel Management (OPM) through USAJOBS, the Federal Government’s
official employment information system. This resource for locating
and applying for job opportunities can be accessed through the
Internet at http://www.usajobs.opm.gov/ or through an interactive
voice response telephone system at (703) 724-1850 or TDD (978)
461-8404. These numbers are not tollfree, and charges may result.
associations. Many professions have associations
that offer employment information, including career planning,
educational programs, job listings, and job placement. To use
these services, associations usually require that you be a member;
information can be obtained directly from an association through
the Internet, by telephone, or by mail.
unions. Labor unions provide various employment
services to members, including apprenticeship programs that teach
a specific trade or skill. Contact the appropriate labor union
or State apprenticeship council for more information.
employment agencies and career consultants. These
agencies can be helpful, but they may charge you for their services.
Most operate on a commission basis, with the fee dependent upon
a percentage of the salary paid to a successful applicant. You
or the hiring company will pay the fee. Find out the exact cost
and who is responsible for paying associated fees before using
agencies can help you save time and contact employers who otherwise
might be difficult to locate, the costs may outweigh the benefits
if you are responsible for the fee. Contacting employers directly
often will generate the same type of leads that a private employment
agency will provide. Consider any guarantees that the agency offers
when determining if the service is worth the cost.
agencies. Many nonprofit organizations, including
religious institutions and vocational rehabilitation agencies,
offer counseling, career development, and job placement services,
generally targeted to a particular group, such as women, youths,
minorities, ex-offenders, or older workers.
Bureau of Labor Statistics